We have already seen the list of options offered by MARKETEER,
and through the menu HELP facility, learned something of what
each provides. We shall now discuss in detail the full
operation and use of each option.
The main menu options are listed in the order of frequency
with which they are generally used. However, this order is not
necessarily the best one in which to introduce them. In fact,
we shall discuss them almost in reverse order, starting with
the options used to set up the database to suit your
particular operation, later progressing to the options which
you will use to update and maintain it in the light of
Setting up involves shaping the database to the particular
geographic sales or marketing areas into which you wish to
divide the United Kingdom, and defining the `values' which you
wish each of the selection keys to hold. This is done using
Option 8. So please press the `8' key on the top row of the
MARKET DEFINITION OPTIONS
A new menu - the Market Definition Menu - now appears on the
screen. Please scan through this menu using the down-arrow key
and read the half screen of text on the right which explains
each option as it is highlighted.
Option 1 allows you to name each `key' used to define your
market. Please type-in the figure `1'. A list of key names now
appears. These are the names we have given to the five major
keys. You can change these names if you wish. For example, you
may wish to use the term `territory' instead of `sales area'.
In this case, you simply follow the instructions given on the
screen to change the name `sales area' to `territory' or
`buying zones' or whatever you wish.
Likewise, you can re-name the other keys to suit your own
preferences. However, before doing so, please read the rest of
this chapter to see more clearly what each key is, what it
does, and how it should be used. Now please press the `Esc'
key to return to the `Market Definition' menu selection.
A FIRST LOOK AT SALES AREAS
Please select Option 7: `Define SALES AREA'. You should now be
looking at a two-column list of sales area names. These were
set up prior to sale to serve as a working example. They are
to give you an idea for setting up your own sales areas on
(Please ignore the name of the rep following each / for the
Apart from a couple of odd ones at the end, these sample sales
areas are in fact modelled on the ITV transmission areas of
the United Kingdom. They are a pretty good approximation and
make ideal ready-made sales areas for companies who wish to
base their areas on TV or local radio advertising coverage.
HOW IS A SALES AREA MADE UP?
However well known or applicable these sales area names may
be, they are nevertheless just names! How can we now give them
geographic reality within MARKETEER'S database?
Let us see how a typical sales area is structured within
MARKETEER'S database. Please spread your Bartholomew's
postcode key map of the United Kingdom on the table. Then
select the `ANGLIA' sales area by pressing the `Ins' key then
the `F1' key. You will now see a list of two-letter postcodes
on the screen said to represent the `ANGLIA' sales area.
A postcode generally comprises two letters, a number, a space,
a number and two more letters. This does vary however in
certain instances such as city postcodes. Of these, the first
two letters of the postcode represent the postcode area. There
are 120 postcode areas covering the United Kingdom. A table
listing all the two-letter codes and the names of the
respective areas they represent is given on the map. The map
itself is divided into these postcode areas. Their boundaries
are marked in red. Within each area is shown the appropriate
two-letter (or sometimes one-letter) postcode also in red.
From the screen you will see that we have set up the `ANGLIA'
sales area to comprise the post areas NR (Norwich), IP
(Ipswich), CB (Cambridge), CO (Colchester), NN (Northampton),
MK (Milton Keynes), LU (Luton), SG (Stevenage), CM
(Chelmsford) and SS (Southend). Try to locate them on the map.
They are all in and around East Anglia.
WHAT A SALES AREA LOOKS LIKE
But what does MARKETEER make of this configuration of two-
letter postcodes? How can they possibly bear any geographic
significance within its database? Now press the `Esc' key
until you get back to the Market Definition menu and then
select Option 8 - `Display Sales Area Map'.
The list of sales areas which you saw previously appears on
the screen. Please type in the letter `A' to display the
`ANGLIA' sales area. MARKETEER now compiles the geographic co-
ordinates of this sales area from the co-ordinates of the
component postcode areas it has been set up to comprise.
Soon, an outline of the United Kingdom appears and the actual
area covered by the selected sales area is shaded in.
The `bar charts' on the left of the map show the percentage of
the prospects currently on file, together with the percentage
of the total UK population, who are located in the sales area
shown. This will be described in more detail in the next
chapter when we deal with `Market Statistics'.
It is interesting to note just how close this shaded area
relates to the `East of England' transmission area covered
(currently) by Anglia Television via the transmitters at
Tacolneston, Sudbury and Sandy Heath. (Please contact the IBA
for maps showing the geographic areas covered by the various
This display is an extremely useful check to confirm that you
have in fact set up your sales areas on MARKETEER the way you
thought you had. Should you have typed any wrong codes by
mistake, or put the right codes in the wrong areas, they will
probably reveal themselves as odd far-flung areas which are
shaded in but shouldn't be.
Study this display, and when you have finished, type QUIT (or
press the `Esc' key) to return to the list of sales areas.
When this list returns to the screen, try pressing the
carriage return (or `Enter') key. You will now get a display
of all the sales areas currently set up within the database,
each one in a different colour.
However, although this gives a very pretty integrated display
of your sales areas, please beware! The computer cannot
generate as many different colours as there are possible sales
areas. We have seen to it that no two adjacent sales areas
have been given the same colour in this particular sales area
configuration! Notice that instead of the bar charts, the
names of the sales areas and their respective colours are
shown to the left of the map.
Look at the multi-coloured display of our sales areas, and
then cast an eye over the map on the table. Each shaded area
on the screen is a group or conglomeration of the postcode
areas shown on the Bartholomew's map.
What you must now decide is how you want YOUR sales areas to
look. Perhaps the `TV' areas we have already set up will suit
you: perhaps not.
Please type-in `QUIT' or press the `Esc' key. The list of
sales areas reappears. Now press the # key. The same list now
appears, but with the various names shown in different
colours. The colour in which a name is shown is the colour in
which that sales area is displayed on the map. When you set up
your own configuration of sales areas, you may use this
facility to change the colour in which some of your areas are
shown in order to avoid adjacent areas being the same colour
and therefore indistinguishable.
The sales area configuration you have just seen assumes that
the business concerned covers the whole of the United Kingdom.
Perhaps your business does not cover the whole of the United
Kingdom. You may hold a local territorial franchise or
dealership for a large national supplier. If so, you will want
to arrange your sales areas to cover only that part of the
United Kingdom for which you are responsible. This is no
problem. A sales area may comprise anything from a full 100
postcode areas down to as little as one single postcode area.
It is now decision time! Will the sample sales areas suit you?
Do you already have your own sales areas well defined?
Is it time for you to rationalise or re-think your sales
areas? Do you need a localised version? Now is a very good
time to get all this sorted out before you transfer your
sales/marketing records onto MARKETEER.
PLANNING YOUR OWN SALES AREAS
Please get all your maps and other documentation pertaining to
your current sales areas. Call in everybody who is likely to
be involved in a possible rationalization of your sales areas.
Set out the maps showing your current sales areas alongside
the Bartholomew's postcode key map of the United Kingdom.
There is a variety of systems on which companies have
traditionally based their sales areas. Typical examples are:
counties, telephone areas, purchasing areas, economic regions,
the Ordnance Survey grid, concentric circles centred on
offices or sales reps' homes, natural boundaries such as
rivers and mountains, arbitrary lines drawn on a map.
None of these systems has been devised according to criteria
relevant to sales and marketing. County boundaries, for
example, were probably decided by ancient battle or feud
rather than by relative road access between adjacent areas or
Similarly, grid or circle based systems pay no heed to the
positions of roads, natural boundaries or relative
populations. All the other systems also have their drawbacks.
One problem common to them all is referencing. Usually, the
reference number or code used with such a system is arbitrary
and meaningless outside that system. References are thus
difficult for customers to remember, and are extremely
difficult to cross-relate with those used by other
organisations such as mailing list brokers. And finally, if
ever you need to change your boundaries, the task of re-
referencing is formidable.
The postcode system is the only one which divides the country
according to population density & distribution, and ease of
access via the road network. It is universal and is stable in
the long term. Your geographic referencing can therefore be
understood easily by others, and vice versa. For a more
detailed discussion on the advantages of the postcode system,
please read the Post Office booklet `Using Postcodes In
Now please discuss your sales area organisation with your
colleagues with reference to your maps and documents. Then,
when you've decided exactly how you would like your sales
areas to be arranged, draw them in on your Bartholomew's
postcode key map (preferably using a yellow felt tipped pen).
When drawing in the boundaries, though, please make sure they
run along the nearest postcode area boundaries (shown in red
on the map). Doing this will prove no disadvantage at all. In
fact it will make your sales areas easier to manage and
involve your reps in less travel. This is because it avoids
the severing of areas with mutually accessible populations,
and ensures that populations are more evenly distributed among
The sample sales areas each occupy a contiguous tract of land.
In other words, every postcode area within a particular sales
area shares at least part of its boundary with at least one of
its fellows. And this is the way sales areas are normally
constructed. But there is no technical reason why a sales area
cannot consist of scattered postcode areas where only some -
or even none - actually touch each other.
Typical situations where fragmented sales areas are useful
are: where the nature of your business demands different
selling resources and techniques for metropolitan, urban and
rural areas; and where for traditional or other reasons, a
particular rep has to annex an odd pocket of territory into
his main sales area.
SETTING UP YOUR SALES AREAS
Once you have settled upon the boundaries of your sales areas
and drawn them in on the map, name each area with the name of
your choice. Then write each name in its appropriate place on
the map together with the name of the rep responsible for that
area. (Please note: there's no technical reason for including
the name of a rep if you don't want to.)
The name of the sales areas together with the names of their
respective reps should be written in the form you saw them
displayed on the screen earlier. That is, with the sales area
name and the name of its rep separated by an oblique stroke,
for example, `ANGLIA/ROBERT'. The total number of characters
used (including the `/') must not be more than 14.
Now, please select Option 2: `SALES AREA Names'. The original
set of sales area names and reps now appears on the screen.
NAMING YOUR SALES AREAS
The objective now is to replace these original sales area
names with yours. But before doing so, please put your sales
area names in order such that the one in which you are likely
to be most active appears first, and work down to the one in
which you are likely to be least active. Generally, this will
mean starting with your `home' territory and working outwards.
It ensures that data in the most frequently accessed sales
areas is found most quickly. Although we are in fact only
talking about seconds, they are seconds saved. Now edit or
over-type the existing sales area/rep names with your sales
area/rep names according to the editing instructions shown on
If you have less than 18 sales areas, please delete completely
any of our sales area names which remain. Afterwards, check
that all have been typed in correctly. If you spot any errors,
amend them in the same way using the left & right arrow keys
to position the cursor over the errors before over-typing with
the correct letters. Finally, press the `F1' key to return to
the Market Definition Menu.
DEFINING THEM GEOGRAPHICALLY
Now select Option 7: `Define SALES AREA'. Your own sales area
names appear again on the screen. Press the `Ins' key and the
`F1' key to select your first sales area. A list of two-letter
post area codes appears. They are the ones for our old
`ANGLIA' sales area. The cursor is flashing over the first
letter of the first two-letter code.
Referring to your Bartholomew's postcode key map, type in the
two-letter codes for all the postcode areas falling within
your first sales area. If any of our old codes remain after
you have finished, please delete them as instructed on the
screen. When all the postcodes have been typed in correctly
for this sales area, press the `F1' key to return to the sales
area names display.
Now scan down to the second sales area name and select that
one by pressing the `Ins' key. Then press the `F1' key to get
the post areas display for that sales area. Refer to the map
again and type in the two-letter postcodes for this area also.
Do the same for all your sales areas. Finally, having returned
to the sales area names display from completing the last sales
area's postcodes, press the `Esc' key to return once again to
the Market Definition Menu.
CHECKING YOUR SALES AREAS
Select Option 8: `Display SALES AREA map', and wait for the
list of sales areas to appear on the screen. Then type-in the
letter `A' to display the first one. After a delay in which
its co-ordinates are compiled, your new first sales area
appears as a shaded zone on the UK outline.
Check the shape and coverage of the shaded zone against your
first sales area as marked out on the Bartholomew's postcode
key map. They should agree. If they don't, you must go back to
the postcodes display for that sales area and correct any of
the two-letter codes that you have typed in wrongly. Go
through the same exercise for checking the geographic shape
and coverage of your other sales areas.
When you have checked out your last sales area in this way,
please return to the list of sales areas from which you select
the various map displays. Then, as a final gesture, press the
carriage return (or `Enter') key to obtain a composite display
of all your sales areas together in their different colours.
Is this how you want the country to look in terms of your
sales/marketing operation? If not, you will have to have a re-
think and go through the preceding process again.
Suppose that after you have been using MARKETEER for some
time, and after you have placed lots of details of many
customers and prospects on-file, you decide that the way you
have organised your sales areas is no longer the best way.
Perhaps your sales force has changed. Perhaps your market has
expanded. Perhaps the geographic distribution of your
prospects has changed.
In such an event, you may re-define your sales areas simply by
repeating the exercise you have just gone through for setting
them up in the first place.
You may do this without disturbing any of the data on
individual prospects which you may have built up within
MARKETEER'S database in the meantime. This is because
MARKETEER automatically re-assigns each prospect to his
appropriate new sales area solely by reference to his existing
postcode. Your own sales areas are now installed within
WHAT IS A KEY?
In the context of MARKETEER, a `key' is an item of information
which defines one of the many attributes of a market. The main
attributes recognised by MARKETEER are `relationship',
`status', `type of event' and `product/service'.
Since there are many different types of relationship, status,
sales event and offered services defining your market, so each
key must have a variety of `values'. For example, the
`relation' key must have a different value for each of the
many possible relationships your business may have with the
various people, companies and organisations within your
Let us illustrate this with an analogy. You know that an
amount of money called `invoice total' can have different
values according to which invoice you are talking about. For
example, the total for one invoice may be 30.23 whereas the
total for another invoice may be 5764.42! Although these
amounts of money are vastly different, they are still values
of the same thing, namely, `invoice total'.
Similarly, the `relation' key, although it is one key, may
have many different values. A key's values, however, are not
expressed in figures, but in words. For example, the kind of
`values' the `relation' key could have are words like
`customer', `agent', `dealer', `competitor'. They each
describe one of the various relationships you may have with
the people, companies and organisations within your market.
This concept will become clearer once you see some real
examples and start to use them within the context of your real
sales and marketing operation.
Let us start by looking at the sample key values already set
up on MARKETEER prior to despatch to serve as guidelines. We
shall now discuss options 3, 4, 5, and 6 of the Market
Definition Menu. Please scan through these options using the
down-arrow and up-arrow keys and re-read the explanatory text
on the right of the screen for each option as it is
THE `RELATION' KEY
Please select Option 3 - `RELATION Values'. A two-column list
of words appears on the screen. These are the sample `values'
already set up for the Relation Key.
To show that MARKETEER can be applied to the purchasing side
of a business as well as to the selling side, the left-hand
column contains `values' associated with selling while the
right-hand column contains `values' more relevant to a buying
operation. Please read through these now and ponder on them
for a few minutes.
Of course, you are quite at liberty to apply MARKETEER to
selling only, purchasing only, or to both. This means that you
may set up all 18 key values for selling, all 18 key values
for purchasing, 9 for one and 9 for the other (as show here),
or divide them between the two any way you wish!
Later, when you are using MARKETEER, you will assign one
particular value of the Relation Key to each person, company
and organisation you put on-file. Thus, any given person,
company or organisation will be classified as a `customer',
`agent', `dealer', `competitor' and so on. What might not be
so immediately obvious is that once this is done, you are able
to classify or `slice' MARKETEER'S database into `customers',
`agents', `dealers', `competitors' and so on and then set them
up separately as consolidated targets for different sales or
Now please press the `Esc' key in order to return once again
to the Market Definition Menu.
THE `STATUS' KEY
Please select Option 4 - `STATUS Values'. Now a different two-
column list of words appears on the screen. Those in the left-
hand column relate to the stages a `sales prospect' may pass
through on his way from being a completely `cold' unknown to a
regular `cast iron' customer, while those on the right show
the equivalent stages for a prospective supplier.
In this list, we have tried to cover all the phases a prospect
or customer could pass through in the full course of a trading
relationship. It starts where he is nothing more than an
uncontacted name from a directory, pass through the various
growth phases in the trading relationship with him until he is
a regular customer, and finally cover the possible effect of
taking him for granted to the unthinkable conclusion of losing
him to the competition!
Again, as with the values assigned to the Relation Key, each
person or company on file is given one of the prescribed
values available for the Status Key - the one which specifies
that particular person's or company's current `status' as a
prospect. This, in turn, means that you are able to classify
or `split' MARKETEER'S database instantly into groups of
prospects such that all the prospects in one group have the
same current status. Thus you are able to target a particular
mailshot or telephone campaign at, say, all your `responding'
prospects, or at all your `regular' customers.
At this stage, you can see that we are able to target a
particular sales or marketing exercise (a mailshot etc) at a
group of prospects within MARKETEER'S database which is
restricted to both a value of the Relation Key (eg `dealer')
and a value of the Status Key (eg `responding')! In other
words, you are targeting a mailshot at those `prospective
dealers' who are currently at the stage of `responding' to
We are sure that by now you have begun to see MARKETEER'S
growing power of selection, and how this, in turn, will
greatly increase the yield of your marketing efforts and
materials through more accurate and effective targeting.
And so far, we have only used two of the keys!
Please study and ponder on these values of the Status Key for
a few minutes and then press the `Esc' key in order to return
to the Market Definition Menu.
THE `EVENT' KEY
Now please select Option 5 - `EVENT Values'. The two-column
list of words which now appears reflects the possible types of
sales event through which we may communicate with our
prospects. Perhaps the ones you use are different. Again, the
list is split between the sales side and the supply side.
The function of the `event' key is to record the means
whereby, or the situation wherein, you were last in touch with
each prospect. In other words it records the TYPE of event and
the DATE on which it occurred. Thus, when reviewing a prospect
later for a telephone follow-up for instance, you will be
reminded when and where you were last in touch - at a seminar
you gave last month, at your exhibition stand, by cold
mailshot and so on. As well as the `last' event, you can also
record the `next' (proposed) event for each prospect and the
date on which you have scheduled that event to occur.
Again, this key can also be used for selection. For example,
it can be used to restrict a follow-up telephone campaign to
just those prospects who attended a certain seminar, or
returned reply-paid cards from a particular mailshot.
And indeed, such target groups can be further restricted to
specific values of the Relation and Status keys as described
As with the values of the other keys, you are free to alter
all the values of the EVENT Key to whatever you like to call
them. However, there is something special about the first 6
values of the EVENT Key. As you can see, they relate to mail,
phone and telex (or electronic mail). Although you may re-word
what you actually call these first 6 values, they must
nevertheless keep these same meanings. This is because
MARKETEER'S mail, telephone and telex sub-systems update the
appropriate one of these six values automatically for each
prospect concerned as follows:
If you send him a one-off letter, his Event Key is set
automatically to the first value. If you make a one-off
telephone call to him, then his Event Key is set automatically
to the second value. If you send him a one-off telex, then his
Event Key is set automatically to the third value. If he is
sent a letter as part of a mailshot, then his Event Key is set
automatically to the fourth value. If a phone call is made to
him as part of a telesales session, then his Event Key is set
automatically to the fifth value. If a telex or electronic
mail message is sent to him as part of a telex shot, then his
Event Key is set automatically to the sixth value.
Please study and ponder on the sample values shown for the
Event key for a few minutes and then press the `Esc' key to
return to the Market Definition Menu.
THE `PRODUCT/SERVICE' KEY
The function of this key is to indicate a prospect's relevance
to your business in terms of the products or services offered
by your company which he is currently `in the market for'.
Conversely, in the purchasing context, it indicates which of
your needs he is offering or likely to be able to provide.
So now please select Option 6 - `Product/Service Values'. In
the two-column list of words which now appears is, on the
left, a list of the various products and services EBS offers,
while on the right is a general list of the product and
service classes that EBS requires in the running of its
business. Naturally, when you come to set up your own values
for the Product/Service Key, they will be the names of YOUR
products and services.
Please note that only 9 product/service categories, and 9
`needs' categories have been allowed for. At first sight, this
number may seem inadaquate. But this is not true. Although
the number and diversity of actual products and services can
be far greater in terms of what they are and what they do,
these are not the best criteria on which to base their selling
We must think of our products and services in terms of their
potential sales sources which exist within our market. Each
customer-type is thereby regarded as a potential sub-market
for more than one product. For example, if you sell
typewriters, paper and correction fluid, although the three
products are very different in what they cost, what they look
like and what they do, they are potentially saleable to the
same category of people.
Typewriters, paper and correction fluid should therefore be
treated as a single product or service category. It will take
much thought and skill to classify your products and services
into a sufficiently small number of categories, but the
dividends will pay off in terms of the increased manageability
of your market database when it comes to specifying the exact
profile of a particular target sector within your market.
Please study these values for the Product/Service Key for a
few minutes and then press the `Esc' key to return to the
Market Definition Menu.
THE KEYS IN RELATION TO A PROSPECT
The Relation, Status and Event keys may each have only one of
their values applied to any given prospect at any given time.
For example, one of your prospects may be an `agent' who gives
you `on-going' trade, and with whom you were last in touch at
an `exhibition' on such and such a date. He is thus allowed
only one out of the up to 18 possible values for each key.
However, since it is likely that any one prospect may be in
the market for products or services in more than one of your
up to 18 product/service categories, each of your prospects
may hold up to 15 out of the up to 18 possible values of the
Product/Service Key. Thus, for example, I could rate a
particular customer of mine as being in the market for
`software packages' AND `consultancy' AND `computer systems'
AND `field service'.
KEYS IN RELATION TO THE MARKET
On the other hand, when specifying the profile of a particular
target group of prospects within your overall market, the said
group may be made to INCLUDE prospects bearing any number of
the up to 18 possible values of each key.
For instance, a particular target group could be set up to
include prospects with any of 7 values of the Relation Key, 4
values of the Status Key, 2 values of the Event Key and 12
values of the Product Key.
The whole procedure for setting up such a profile is discussed
in complete detail in the chapter on defining targets.
PLANNING YOUR OWN KEY NAMES & VALUES
Having seen our sample key names and key values, and knowing
the way you have already of classifying and categorizing your
prospects, you must now decide what you wish to call each key
and the values you want it to have to suit your business.
This may take a considerable effort and involve many different
people within your company.
Perhaps it is time to rationalise and reconsider totally the
way you classify your prospects. Perhaps you have it all
worked out already. Whatever the case, please break off from
your introduction to MARKETEER for the time being until you
know exactly what values you want to assign to each of the
keys and have put them down on paper as a set of formal lists.
ENTERING YOUR OWN KEY VALUES
Now select Option 1 of the Market Definition Menu to display
the key names and amend the names as required. Then in the
same way, select Options 3 to 6 in turn and amend each key's
set of values as necessary.
When you have finished you will have set up MARKETEER'S
database to reflect precisely the `shape' and character of
your own market. Prior to despatch, some sample prospects were
set up within MARKETEER'S database to serve as initial
examples. In the next chapter, we shall see how these sample
prospects appear within the new framework you have just set